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There is no doubt that Golestan Complex (locally called Golestan Palace) is one of the most impressive historical attractions of Tehran which has been completed over the centuries.
The original name of the complex was, Arg Palace where it dates back to Safavid dynasty and has been built by Shah Tahmasb (who was the 2nd leader of Safavid) and later on completed by Shah Abbas I and his followers. It is located in vicinity of Arg Square, however, nothing is left from that day and nowadays it is turned to grand bazaar region.
The oldest building of this complex is Karim khani Palace which has been built by Karim khan who founded Zand dynasty in Shiraz. However, due to personal issues between Agha Mohamad Khan and him, the whole complex destroyed but only one portico of that old building is left that enables everyone taking an spectacular shot of the whole garden.
In Qajari period, this complex was expanded to several palaces and mostly done by 2nd king of this dynasty who was Fath Ali shah. He founded his private palace literally on Zand property that today is called Marmar Palace. Or by the 4th king of this dynasty, Naser-o-Din Shah many buildings in this complex were expanded and finely decorated as he sent several Iranian artists to Europe and combined their methods of architectures with Iranian’s.
Especially in Twin towers of Golestan palace, he hired several artists from all over his kingdom to well decorate it by stucco, paintings, priceless stones and etc. In Pahlavi dynasty, this complex just well preserved and mostly used by all excellencies from all over the world, because Reza Shah had moved to Sa’ad Abad complex and in late 1960s his son MohamadReza moved to Niavaran Complex.
This is the reason, Pahlavi kings were of the opinion that they should provide an appropriate complex for their visitors and excellencies in Iran.
It’s well noted that, all the palaces in the past were connected to each other as it was part of Iranian architecture and it was unnecessary to go through courtyard. But in Pahlavi dynasty privacy of palaces became in high priority and it was only possible to go through either of them from garden door rather than from inside and all staircases were shut.
People are of the opinion that this complex has been larger than today and consisted many buildings from different dynasties but today we are able to visit some of them that are listed below;
Marmar Palace, Karim khani Pavilion, Main palace, basement palace (howz Khane), Mirror Palace, Brilian Palace, Wind-catcher Palace, Shams-ul-Emareh (Twin Towers), White Palace.